Portable video cameras enabled many pop acts to produce promotional videos
Colourisation - colourful outlines, effects, animations, cartoons, CGI
1990 - Common technical codes:
- Fast cut montage - most common form of editing
- Multiple viewings
- Split screens
- Non - representational techniques - the musical artist is never shown, became more common (alternative narratives)
- Lack of edits, long takes, steady cams
As the genre developed, music videos increasingly turned to 35 mm films.
The rise in popularity of music videos led to huge demand for good quality videos and genre themed videos.
Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics
Relationships between lyrics and visuals
Demand of the record label will include the need for the variety of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motives which recur across their work
Notion of looking (screens within screens, telescopes, periscopes) voyeuristic treatment of the female body
Intertextual references - to film, TV, programmes, other music videos
Television shows include intertextual references, often for comic effects, (parody) for example, Family guy, Simpsons (use of film/TV stars, story lines, political references). Intertextuality stretches to 'non-fiction' media such as newspapers.
Stylistically: by imitating the style of a film or television genre, video games, cartoons.
Goodwin's music video analysis 'Dancing in the distraction factory'
Theme and Narrative:
George Michael's outside music video uses intertexuality both stylistically in parts and through it's narrative which refers to his arrest for indecent behaviour.
Content: Some videos contain more subtle intertextual references within their content, a nod to a person or character, political comment, current news item.
(Madona's Material Girl) - music video
Purpose of intertextual referencing
Can add another dimension or meaning to a text, as well as fulfilling an important role for audiences.
The audience may be familiar with to generate both potentially nostalgic associations and new meanings